Bumble Bee on Native Cup Plant



Plant Fair - May 13, 2017

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April 24, 2017 Meeting

To find out more, click on the poster below.


Lorraine Johnson - Gardens, Goats & Greenways: An Unconventional Tour of Paris

April 24, 2017 Meeting

Meetings are held at the Bonar-Parkdale Presbyterian Church, 250 Dunn Avenue, just south of Queen Street West. Arrive after 6:30pm and enjoy coffee and cookies while you check out the Hort library, chat, and ask questions!

Quelle surprise…with Lorraine Johnson leading our adventure we’ll visit Paris community gardens with chickens, goats doing lawn care at Jardin des Tuileries and a 17th century peach wall being lovingly restored. Also, her new edition of 100 Easy to Grow Native Plants will be available at the meeting. 


I was mildly irritated that, in the first bio I wrote for April’s speaker some years back, I’d described the striking short- cropped hair and black and white striped leggings she was wearing the first time I saw Lorraine Johnson. Oh, well, can’t do that again. The fact is, mind you, that she hasn’t changed that much…the hair, the tall slender woman, the spoon and fork earrings, anyway. But that first meeting was over 30 years ago and I dare say, it’s really quite incredible that someone can write so many books and articles, speak all over North America on a variety of topics, and still manage to discover new things that surprise her! Good for us!

This time it’s the fledgling élevage d’animaux (animal husbandry) taking place in the City of Light. Until last year, Lorraine had an annual month-long, “best gig in the world”, cat-sitting arrangement in Paris, which is decidedly not élevage d’animaux. This gig allowed her to spend a lot of time discovering the city in a leisurely way. This past summer, she began to notice livestock in various places—goats ‘mowing’ the grounds of the Jardin des Tuileries by the Louvre, sheep performing the same task in other public parks, chickens in Monet’s garden and community gardens, and chickens and beehives on the rooftop of the four-star Pullman Hotel!

As she is sure to do, Lorraine will explain this discovery in its ecological and agricultural contexts. These were topics that informed her most recent book, City Farmer: Adventures in Urban Food Growing, and propelled her into the spotlight as one of very few outspoken champions for the backyard chicken movement.

She is herself nesting on the Toronto Islands these days, where she and her new wife, Pam, eloped while awaiting the completion of a house reno. In the insular, wintry escape, they are plotting a rejuvenation of their garden, including Pam’s idea of using vertical space, which is fitting after Lorraine’s visit to ancient, espaliered peach orchards on the outskirts of Paris. As to her previous trio of hens, they’ve gone back to the farm, but when she reconvenes the little flock, she is now considering including quail!

Lorraine has also just published a revised edition of 100 Easy-To-Grow Native Plants for Canadian Gardens (although it is really 101 plants, she confessed), which includes botanical name changes and a bit about pollinators. She will be happy to take questions on plants after her talk.

Maria Nunes 


March 27, 2017 Meeting

To find out more, click on the poster below.


Marion Jarvie - A Tour of the Jarvie Garden

March 27, 2017 Meeting

Meetings are held at the Bonar-Parkdale Presbyterian Church, 250 Dunn Avenue, just south of Queen Street West. Arrive after 6:30pm and enjoy coffee and cookies while you check out the Hort library, chat, and ask questions!

Marion will open her reknowned private garden revealing this peaceful jewelbox as the seasons change and transform the fabulous combinations of shrubs, trees, perennials and her many new plants!


As a blustery snowstorm rattles my windows, it’s good to flip through Marion Jarvie’s webpage gallery of plants from her garden. The fresh, crisp, vivid colours of the many beautiful plants and snippets of garden beds throughout the year are a welcome distraction when Mother Nature teased us with late spring-like weather a couple of weeks ago, but then threw us one last (one hopes) volley of winter.

The computer screen is no match for the screen upon which this month’s presenter will once again treat us to bigger than life images skilfully captured by this prolific photographer. Marion has shown us images from far off lands in past visits, but this time she’s concentrating on her own garden in Thornhill—not that it isn’t as exotic!

As we’ve come to learn, Marion loves to showcase new and unusual plants discovered on her many international journeys, alongside our own natives, like our hardy orchids (remember John Alexander and Peter Kaellgren’s presentation last November?), otherwise known as Lady Slippers. There are plants of every kind featured in this garden from trees and shrubs in all shapes and sizes, including the bright rose, double-flowered prunus ‘Marion Jarvie’; to tender perennials both in the ground and in pots, like numerous varieties of succulents. From shade to sun-loving plants and bog-loving to dry rock garden plants, Marion and her husband Alex have created a living, encyclopaedic work of plant art for all seasons on their nearly 1⁄2 acre site.

Just as we get set to dig our hands back into the soil, this will provide one last shot of inspiration for the coming gardening season.

Maria Nunes 


February 27, 2017 Meeting

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Anna Leggatt - Monarchs, Mountains and Mexico

February 27, 2017 Meeting

Meetings are held at the Bonar-Parkdale Presbyterian Church, 250 Dunn Avenue, just south of Queen Street West. Arrive after 6:30pm and enjoy coffee and cookies while you check out the Hort library, chat, and ask questions!
Toronto’s self-proclaimed “mad gardener”, Anna Leggatt, had a dream to see the over-wintering monarchs. She will take us on her amazing adventure to a butterfly sactuary atop a fir forested mountain in the central highlands of Mexico.
To read Clement Kent’s article about his expedition to the monarchs, please click here.

A Royal Visit

by Clement Kent, Ph.D., S.R.A, C.P.Y., etc., etc.

 ⦁ A visit with the Royal Families chez eux ⦁ Base Camp I ⦁ Base Camp II ⦁ The Ascent ⦁ The Royal Forest ⦁ Floral Adornment ⦁ Silence in the Presence ⦁ No Gain without Pain ⦁ Health of the Royals ⦁ Royal Court ⦁ Long Term prospects for the Monarchs ⦁ How You may Help

Your Humble Correspondent had the never-to-be-forgotten honor of visiting the Monarchs (Danaus plexippa, in Court language) in their winter palaces in January. Here I record my observations along with some Illustrations by the redoubtable Mr. Canon, SLR.

⦁ Base Camp I ⦁

Although Their Majesties are more commonly observed in their Summer habitations, in the Winter they withdraw to remote Winter Palaces, difficult of approach. Thus my cousin Mr. Casey and I began our expedition in the town of Morelia, State of Michoacan, Republic of Mexico. Here we established our first base camp in the comfortable Hotel de la Soledad. We dined excellently on regional specialties of gourmet quality with local dignitaries Profs. Ramirez, Marten-Rodriguez, and Quesada of UNAM and discussed their efforts at understanding the role of the peasantry and local fauna and flora. We toured local indigenous artworks, many of which took as their theme the presence of the Monarchs.

⦁ Base Camp II ⦁

We had hired a native guide, Mr. Lopez, who translated and conducted our caravan for us. We repaired to our second camp, the Training Centre of Alternare A.C., three hours from Camp I. We were assigned humble but adequate quarters suitable to our dignity (the Presidential Suite for myself, bunk-beds for Messrs. Casey and Lopez). Simple but abundant and delicious local foods were prepared for us by the good campesino ladies. It is to be noted that at no point were we afflicted with the unpleasantnesses of digestion reported by some travellers. Indeed, part of the Mission of Alternare is the teaching of Hygiene to local campesinos, and judging by our fare they are eminently successful. We shall have further Observations regarding the Mission of Alternare below.

⦁ The Ascent ⦁

Fortified with excellent food and drink prepared for us by the good ladies, we began our first Ascent to the Royal Premises.  After 45 minutes on progressively steeper mountain roads, we reached 3,260 meters elevation (above the altitude of Quito, Ecuador; by comparison the highest permanent settlements of Europe are below 2,200 meters) where we left our trusty Honda vehicle and entered the Royal Preserve “Sierra Chincua”. Here we engaged another local guide to take us up to the Royal Forest. We determined to test our Fortitude by walking, but some of our companions who carried heavy Photographic Apparatus discovered less than a kilometer up the trail that they required assistance, at which point a campesino with a horse appeared as if by magic. One suspects that those with delicate constitutions often flag about this point, although the path is more long than steep. Nonetheless, the air at these heights is thin and the slightest exertion is felt more keenly.

⦁ The Royal Forest ⦁

We soon passed from open pastures, inhabited by hardy cattle, to the penumbrous shade of stately Oyamel Fir trees. These cap the mountains and represent a preferred tree of their Majesties, of which more anon. The Forest was previously owned and logged by the peasantry, but the Government of Mexico has declared a Preserve to protect the Monarchs. A grievous consequence of this is severe loss of income to local families, only some of which is made up by revenues from tourism.

⦁ Floral Adornment ⦁

As we ascended the mountain, in clearings we saw great quantities of flowers, including blue and red native sages (Salvia Mexicana and many others), purple groundsels (Senecio callosus) and a host of others. Violent winter winds in the past few years have created many windfalls in which winter bloom abounds. These clearings provide a good part of the winter sustenance of their Majesties.

⦁ Silence in the Presence ⦁

Finally, we approached an area where the majestic Firs were cloaked in Monarchs. Our guide admonished us, sotto voce, to be silent in the Presence. Indeed so Awesome a sight struck many of us silent, although without the vigilance of the guides there would no doubt have been a clatter and chatter most disturbing to Royalty. 

⦁ No Gain without Pain ⦁

The pressure of the madding crowd prevented close examination of the Royals at our first stopping place. However, we had been provided a special License to approach their Majesties more closely, at a second location. To do this we followed the guide down one steep slope and then up another, arriving at another Royal Grove where we were the only Supplicants present. Here we were able to observe the resting Royalty at length, for it was still before noon. Those who have only observed Monarchs in their leafy summer palaces of milkweed may not know that in winter-time they use the aristocratic privilege of sleeping until the Sun is high, for it is cool in the Groves. Thus we have the slightly touching image of Mr. Casey breathing on a recumbent Monarch to attempt to rouse it with his plebeian Breath. 

Leaving this grove, we ascended a most challenging slope at the crest of which, exceeding 3,400 meters, we were afforded most pleasing views of the surrounding country. However, the ascent did provoke some heavy breathing among our party, and complaints upon the following morn of stiff muscles.

⦁ Health of the Royals ⦁

Although difficult to believe when in the Presence, the number of Monarchs in 2017 is the second lowest in recorded history. Evil effects of 21st century farming methods, including the drastic decrease in milkweeds in their Spring Courts of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Iowa due to increased herbicide use and the prevalent cult of King Corn, have reduced the production of new Royals drastically. It is the young from the Spring Courts who move even further North to our lands in May and June and in their turn produce children in the northern States and Canada. Then, when Summer’s days are waning, Canadian Monarchs (aided by the winds of Boreas) fly over 4,000 kilometers to their Winter Palaces.

⦁ Royal Court ⦁

No Monarchy functions without couriers and servitors. We have already mentioned the faithful Guides who preserve and protect their Majesties. One may also see heavily armed “Federales” prepared to repel logger brigands from the Royal Forest, and these make up the military classes. However, it is the servitors who, as in any court, are most essential to their royal needs. At Alternare, part of their Mission is teach sustainable silviculture to the local campesinos. We met peasant families in small cooperatives who raise and plant  thousands of native tree seedlings each year on the mountain slopes. Unlike the planting efforts of government funded reforestation, where only 5-15% of seedling survive a year, the campesino plantings are well timed and well tended and over 85% survive. More, multiple species are grown. Further, Alternare teaches local families ways to reduce wood use in their cooking and construction, diminishing mountain slope deforestation. 

⦁ Long Term Prospects for the Monarchs ⦁

The decline of habitat in Winter, Spring, and Summer courts continues. Under the regency of Prince Obama, steps were taken to provide subsidies to farmers in the Spring Courts to eliminate herbicide use on strips between farm fields and along Royal Roads. However, the advent of the Pretender casts doubt that these essential programs will continue. Worse, the Pretender is now attacking Mexico and Mexicans, which may reduce funds available for protection of the Winter Courts.

⦁ How You May Help ⦁

We here in the Dominion can best help their Majesties in several ways. Each of us can help locally by planting attractive milkweed species in our gardens and our public places, avoiding herbicide and pesticide uses in these plantations, and educating our fellows about the needs of the Monarchs. Whether we can affect the Pretender and his Republican Guard is dubious; so until his yoke is cast off, we must support the efforts of organized groups such as Alternare. If this link does not work for you, you may use this one.

You may also help by visiting the Winter Palaces. To do, so, we recommend travelling to Mexico City via a non-stop flight from Muddy York. Thence, a luxurious bus may be hired to transport you to Morelia, where we advise a day or three of accommodation to altitude and enjoyment of the Colonial art, architecture, and gourmet gastronomy. When ready, take a recognized tour to the Winter Palaces. Unless you are strong and aerobically fit, we advise you to hire a horse for the ascent.  Be sure to tip your Guides well and if so inclined, investigate the wares on display at the base – many locally produced baskets, pottery, and warm woolen winter wraps are on display. And warm you may wish for! At nights temperatures on the mountaintops can flirt with freezing, although on sunny afternoons it is often a comfortable 18-20C. An ideal time for a tour is to reach the Court at 11am (with a packed lunch) and watch until 1pm, at which time many butterflies will be flying. The Monarchs arrive in November and depart in March. The warmest time to visit is the second half of February, although the crowds will be largest then too.


January 30, 2017 Meeting

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On Wildness: Community and Control in Urban Green Space

By: Ava Lightbody

The city is a structured place. Roads and sidewalks follow mainly straight lines, while houses, apartment buildings, offices and shops march dutifully alongside them, one after the other. Many of us live structured lives within our concrete, highly controlled world, following the schedules, routines, and norms of our workplaces and leisure activities. Urban green space is often no different – processions of trees stand on manicured turf and garden beds are filled with neat lines of annuals. Community use of park space is defined and limited by a stifling array of municipal policies, bylaws, permits, and red tape.

While this approach to governing public space is understandable in a city filled wCorn & beansith as many competing interests as it has inhabitants; the wild and wayward life of a tiny, disproportionately lively square of parkland in Toronto’s west end has a different lesson to teach us about the rewards of relinquishing control.

MacGregor Playground is an unassuming neighbourhood park bordered by Lansdowne Avenue and the CN Railway line, sandwiched between a high school and dense residential area. Local lore remembers its past incarnations as a mere short cut between Lansdowne and the smaller streets by day, and a dark, threatening place by night. Over the past several years however MacGregor Playground has begun to flourish under the tutelage of community members and a local arts group, now known as Botanicus Art Ensemble. The formerly non-descript park now features a Native Species garden, a bountiful Edible Teaching Garden, arts and garden programs for children and adults, and a series of seasonal nature-based community festivals.

Open garden gateThe Native Species garden is a small but exceptionally diverse collection of wild flowers, grasses, and shrubs – Grey Coneflower, Little Bluestem, and Witch Hazel. It is a microcosmic stage for the complex and cyclical dance of pollinators, pests, sun, rain, decay and rebirth. The Edible Teaching Garden is a whimsical oasis of curling little foot paths unfolding through oddly-shaped, lush garden beds – their curvatures echoing the spiralling, twisting tendrils and stems of companion-planted  heirloom squash, tomatoes, beans, and  herbs.  The gardens bring the wild back into the city – a wildness that is impermanent yet timeless, cyclical yet unpredictable, governed by pattern yet uncontrolled and uncontrollable.

As the stewards of the gardens, program participants temporarily transcend the domesticated cityscape and take part in something larger than the human. This “something” can be guided by our hand but is forever beyond our grasp. The Botanicus Art Ensemble artists invite everyone to be a little untamed, a little more free – and so they have been, donning elaborate hats with towering ornaments that reach to the sky, and long sparkling robes that flow like water.Herb spiral

Throughout the growing season of 2016, Botanicus Art Ensemble led garden-side, nature-inspired arts programs in theatre, dance, and music. Spring was celebrated with a large community gathering and a theatrical performance featuring original songs and characters such as “Snap Pea”, a strutting, singing pea plant, and “The Centipedes”, a dancing trio dispelling the stigma surrounding the creepy crawlies of the garden. July brought the “Bumble Bee Flash Mob,” a sudden eruption of lively music and dance within the crowd at the BIG on Bloor street festival, performed by community members dressed as bees and butterflies to honour the importance of pollinators within the ecosystem we all depend on. In harvest season the neighbourhood was brought together around food from the garden, and a participatory drumming procession that circled the empty wading pool as if performing an ancient harvest ritual.

Edible garden map“Working outside in a public park can be nerve-wracking”, says Artistic Director Kristen Fanrig, “because you never know what the day will bring – will there be a rainstorm? Who will turn up? But with professional artists & gardeners who can turn on a dime, and enthusiastic volunteers & participants, you can be sure that what seems like a scary tight-rope walk into the unknown will become a joyful fanfare that trumpets a combined creative expression.”

Between the celebrations were open drop-in workdays in the garden, spent learning and tending the garden and volunteer days for neighbourhood high school students. People from all walks of life transformed the garden from a flat plot of land and a handful of seeds to an Eden of vegetables, fruits, and herbs. A branch of the Toronto Seed Library was started, a city-wide initiative that promotes biodiversity and putting seeds and seed knowledge into the hands of community members. As the months passed, participants formed unlikely and unusual friendships with neighbours whose paths they may not otherwise have crossed. They have stepped outside their shells. They have lingered out in the park a little later.

Herb scavenger huntThe success of the arts and garden programs at MacGregor Playground sheds a new kind of light on the adage “if you love something then let it go”. Most Torontonians can see there is much to love about parks and their potential to improve urban lives – they give us a place to form a personal relationship with the environment, to be active and breathe clean air, to break down social isolation and build community.

Parks can be the life-giving counterbalance to wearying city life, but if MacGregor Playground tells us anything, it’s that a blossoming life cannot be contained in the structured world we create for ourselves. It is messy and indefinable, it is cracks and spills and unexpected outcomes. It comes from the ground and it unfurls in myriad directions. If we want to reap all the benefits that Toronto parks have to offer, we must embrace the wildness of co-creating with nature, and with one another.

Ava LightbodyAva Lightbody is a social and environmental justice activist and thinker, with a love for research, writing, the arts, and getting her hands dirty in the garden (or the kitchen!). She holds a Masters degree in environmental studies from York University, where she studied Aboriginal rights and the Canadian mining and fossil fuel industries. Ava developed and led garden programs at MacGregor Playground in 2016 for the Botanicus Art Ensemble in collaboration with community members and Parks & Recreation staff.

Botanicus Art Ensemble is a non-profit arts group - actors, musicians, designers, gardeners and story-tellers creating nature-inspired art with neighbours out of an urban park in Toronto, Canada. Their most recent park improvement project has been the creation of the MacGregor Teaching Gardens and in 2016, with funding from the Ontario Trillium Foundation the BAE commissioned a feasibility study of the MacGregor Fieldhouse from DTAH Architects to support year-round community programs. To read this study and find out more about BAE projects please visit www.botanicusart.com.

To join us in planting and caring for the MacGregor Teaching Gardens in the upcoming spring please contact info@botanicusart.com.

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